While various sources of regulatory guidance address contractual information security requirements for financial institutions, the characteristic feature of these requirements is that they are flexible and risk-based. That is to say, the guidance avoids prescribing specific language that must appear in every contract or a contractual requirement that certain technologies be used, such as a particular encryption standard. Often the guidance does not even use the word "must" at all, instead reminding financial institutions that they "should" consider various recommended types of contractual protections (of course, those of us used to dealing with bank regulators know that "should" does not necessarily mean optional).
The overall thrust is that while some sort of written contract is required to hold the vendor responsible for the security of customer information, regulators are primarily concerned with informed risk assessments, i.e., making sure the financial institution has evaluated the level of risk as part of a systematic vendor due diligence process and that the contract requires reasonable or appropriate security measures, with reasonableness depending on identified risk factors such as the nature and amount of the information shared with the vendor. The classic expression of the risk-based framework appears in the Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safeguarding Customer Information, jointly issued by the federal banking agencies and the Federal Trade Commission in 2001 to implement the security requirements of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. With respect to contracting, the guidelines require a financial institution simply "require its service providers by contract to implement appropriate measures designed to meet the objectives of these Guidelines …" (i.e., implementation of safeguards designed to mitigate the assessed risks).
Other federal guidance adds a few specific information security requirements, but these are minimal. For example, OCC Bulletin 2001-47, which addresses third-party risk management for national banks, provides a detailed summary of contractual provisions that banks should consider. On the specific topic of information security, however, beyond customary confidentiality language and a requirement to implement appropriate security measures, the bulletin indicates only that the bank should require vendors to provide disclosure of security breaches resulting in unauthorized intrusions that may materially affect the bank or its customers, as well as reporting on the effects of such breaches and any corrective action taken. The Outsourcing Technology Services IT Examination Handbook, issued by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 2004, repeats this directive.
In addition to guidance issued by their supervising regulators, financial institutions may also be subject to state data security laws and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS). The contracting requirements specified in these sources are also minimal. For example, the August 2009 amendments to Massachusetts' regulation, 201 CMR §17.00, align it with the Interagency Guidelines discussed above; organizations that own or license personal information about Massachusetts residents must require third-party vendors by contract to implement and maintain appropriate protective security measures that are consistent with the regulation and with federal regulations. (However, any contract entered into prior to March 1, 2010 will not be considered non-compliant even if it lacks these provisions.)
PCI DSS Requirement 12.8 provides that if cardholder data is shared with a service provider, an organization must implement and maintain policies and procedures to manage the relationship. With respect to contracting, these policies and procedures must include maintaining a written agreement to acknowledge that the service provider is responsible for the security of cardholder data in its possession.
A brief survey of the guidance, therefore, suggests that information security requirements for financial institution vendor contracts are not onerous: "reasonable" or "appropriate" security measures plus disclosure and reporting on data breach incidents. However, a broader reading of the guidance and sound risk management principles behoove us to go little further.
These protections need not add pages of verbiage, and while the legalese will inevitably be negotiated, vendors used to dealing with financial institutions or personal information, particularly in the age of PCI DSS compliance, should be familiar with these requests and have standardized responses to them.
About the author:
Andrew M. Baer is an attorney with long experience in technology, e-commerce and information security matters relating to the financial industry. He is the founder of Baer Business Law, LLC (www.baerbizlaw.com), a Philadelphia firm focused on providing clients with cost-efficient business counseling and transactional assistance, particularly in the areas of technology and intellectual property law. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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